THINGS ABOUT THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: The female reproductive system consists of internal and external organs which aid in the reproduction of a new offspring. The female reproductive system is under developed at birth and develops to maturity at puberty so as to be able to produce gametes and to carry a fetus. The internal organs consists of Fallopian tube, uterus and ovaries.


The uterus or womb accommodates the embryo which develops into the fetus. It consists of strong muscles which are able to expand and contract to accommodate the growing fetus and help push the baby out during labor. It also produces uterine and vaginal secretions which aids in the transit of sperm to the Fallopian Tube. The ovaries produce the ova (Egg cells). The Fallopian tubes are two tubes leading from the ovaries into the uterus.  On maturity of an ovum, the ovary wall and follicle rupture, allowing the escape of the ovum, it enter the Fallopian tube and moves towards the uterus.

The external organs, also called Genitals consists of vulva and vaginal opening. The vulva consists of labia majora, mons pubis, labia minora, vaginal opening, clitoris, pudendal cleft and bartholin’s gland. The vagina is a fibromuscular canal leading from the outside of the body to the cervix of the uterus or womb. It gives accomodation to the male penis during sexual intercourse. Semen contains spermatozoa, this is ejaculated from the male into the vagina, enabling the fertilization of the egg cell (ovum).

The female reproductive organ enables a woman to do the following:

  • Have sexual intercourse
  • Produce egg
  • nourishes and protects the egg until it is fully matured.
  • Give birth

Problems of The Female Reproductive System

  • Problem associated with the vulva and vagina

Vulvovaginitis is an inflammation of the vulva and vagina caused by irritating substances such as soaps or bubble baths, poor hygiene such as wiping from back to front after a bowel movement and an overgrowth of candida (a fungus normally present in the vagina).

Symptoms are: redness and itching in the vaginal and vulva areas and yellow vaginal discharge.

Non-menstrual vaginal bleeding is caused by the presence of a vaginal foreign body, such as toilet paper. Also caused by  straddle injury (such as when falling onto a beam or bicycle frame) or vaginal trauma from sexual abuse. It is also due to to urethral prolapse, a condition in which the mucous membranes of the urethra protrude into the vagina and form a tiny, donut-shaped mass of tissue that bleeds easily.

  • Problem associated with the Fallopian tube and ovaries

Ovarian tumor isn’t a common problem but when it occurs, it causes abdominal pain.To get rid of the tumor might require surgery.

Ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg, doesn’t travel to the uterus, instead grows rapidly in the Fallopian tube. This could result in severe abnominal pains.

Ovarian cysts are noncancerous sacs filled with fluid or semi-solid material. They might be harmless but could be an issue if it develops. This may also result in abdominal pains. There is a high chance of cysts leaving on it’s own but if this isn’t the case, see the doctor.

Endometriosis occurs when tissues found inside the uterus starts growing outside the it. It could also result in abdominal pains, painful periods and pelvic pain in general.

  • Problem associated with menstruation

Menorrhagia is as a result of very heavy periods with excess bleeding.

Amenorrhea is described as when a girl is yet to start her period by age 16 or 3 years after starting puberty, has not developed signs of puberty by age 14, or has had normal periods but has stopped menstruating for some reason other than pregnancy.

Menorrhagia is as a result of very heavy periods with excess bleeding.

Oligomenorrhea  is as a result of frequently missed periods even though she’s been menstruating for a while and isn’t pregnant.


Infections of The Female Reproductive System

  • Sexually Transmitted Infections

These are infections that can be transmitted from one person to another throigh sexual intercourse. They include: pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), human papillomavirus (HPV, or genital warts), human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, and genital herpes (HSV).

  • Toxic Shock Syndrome

This isn’t a common disease but it is deadly. It is caused by toxins released into the body during a type of bacterial infection that is more likely to develop if a tampon is left in too long.

Symptoms are: diarrhea, high fever, vomiting, and shock.

  • Yeast Infection

Yeast infections are due to an overgrowth of fungus in the vagina known as candida. It is also due to an imbalance of the pH in the vagina, which is usually acidic.

Symptoms: itching, burning, painful sexual intercourse, irritation, painful urination,and a white cottage-cheese-like discharge from the vagina.


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